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8TH Grade Science [Science 8]

TABLE OF CONTENTS
  • MAIN OBJECTIVES
  • ASTRONOMY
    |--The Solar System
    |--Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation
    |--Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion
  • KINEMATICS IN ONE DIMENSION
    |--Reference Frames and Displacement
    |--Velocity
    |--Acceleration
    |--Falling Objects
  • TEMPERATURE AND THERMODYNAMICS
    |--Temperature and Kinetic Theory
    |--The Gas Laws and Absolute Temperature
    |--Heat and Energy Transfer
    |--The Laws of Thermodynamics
  • ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM
    |--Electric Charge and Electric Field
    |--Capacitance
    |--Electric Currents
    |--Magnetism
    |--Electromagnetic Induction
  • FLUIDS
    |--Density and Specific Gravity
    |--Pascal's Principle
    |--Archimide's Principle
    |--Bernoulli's Principle
  • REFERENCES
    MAIN OBJECTIVES


    Required Textbook: A Beka, Matter and Motion, Work-Text, Pensacola, Florida, current edition.

    [a] Introduction to the Physical Sciences.
    [i] The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position. Position is defined relative to some choice of standard reference point and a set of reference directions. Average speed is the total distance traveled divided by the total time elapsed.
    [ii] Solve problems involving distance, time, and average speed.
    [ii] Unbalanced forces cause changes in velocity. A force has both direction and magnitude.
    [iii] The greater the mass of an object the more force is needed to achieve the same change in motion.
    [iv] The role of gravity in forming and maintaining planets, stars and the solar system.

    [b] Elements, their distinct properties and atomic structure of Matter
    [i] The structure of the atom and how it is composed of protons, neutrons and electrons.
    [ii] Compounds are formed by combining two or more different elements. Compounds have properties that are different from the constituent elements.
    [iii] The states (solid, liquid, gas) of matter depend on molecular motion. In solids the atoms are closely locked in position and can only vibrate, in liquids the atoms and molecules are more loosely connected and can collide with and move past one another, while in gases the atoms or molecules are free to move independently, colliding frequently.

    [c] The Solar System, structure and composition of the universe.
    [i] Galaxies are clusters of billions of stars, and may have different shapes. The sun is one of many stars in our own Milky Way galaxy. Stars may differ in size, temperature, and color.
    [ii] Use astronomical units and light years as measures of distance between the sun, stars, and Earth.
    [iii] Stars are the source of light for all bright objects in outer space. The moon and planets shine by reflected sunlight, not by their own light.
    [iv] The appearance, general composition, relative position and size, and motion of objects in the solar system, including planets, planetary satellites, comets, and asteroids.

    [d] Chemical reactions are processes in which reactant atoms and molecules form products with different chemical properties.
    [i] Explain the law of conservation of matter: in chemical reactions the number of atoms stays the same no matter how they are arranged, so their total mass stays the same.
    [ii] Tell the difference between a chemical and a physical process. Physical processes include freezing and boiling, in which a material changes form with no chemical reaction.
    [iii] Determine whether a solution is acidic, basic or neutral.
    [iv] Understand the chemistry of biological systems and the central role of carbon in the chemistry of living organisms because of its ability to combine in many ways with itself and other elements.
    [v] Make inferences as to the relative size of molecules in living systems: small ones such as water and salt, and very large ones such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins and DNA.

    [e] The scientific method: how to ask meaningful questions and conduct careful investigations.
    [i] Plan and conduct a scientific investigation to test a hypothesis, evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of data and distinguish between variable and controlled parameters in a test.
    [ii] Construct appropriate graphs from data and develop quantitative statements about the relationships between variables.
    [iii] Apply simple mathematical relationships to determine one quantity given the other two (including speed = distance/time, density = mass/volume, force = pressure x area, volume=area x height).
    [iv] Distinguish between linear and non-linear relationships on a graph of data.

    1 ASTRONOMY

    1.1 - The Solar System
    ...
    2 KINEMATICS IN ONE DIMENSION

    2.1 - Reference Frames and Displacement
    ...
    3 TEMPERATURE AND THERMODYNAMICS

    3.1 - Temperature and Kinetic Theory
    ...
    4 ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM

    4.1 - Electric Charge and Electric Field
    ...
    5 FLUIDS

    5.1 - Density and Specific Gravity
    ...
    REFERENCES

    [1] A Beka, Matter and Motion, Work-Text, Pensacola, Florida.
    ...